• 9th April
    2014
  • 09
Today I almost died …
I got in a really bad accident on my motor bike and despite wearing a helmet and leather I am still missing various parts of flesh. I would also be missing half my face if it wasn’t for my helmet. Please always wear a helmet and make sure your friends and patients do as well. It’s much cooler to wear appropriate gear then be covered in scar tissue bc you didn’t!
  • 7th April
    2014
  • 07
The road to medicine is by no means an easy path, but nor is anything in life. When you find what your passionate about, there is nothing you’ll work as hard to achieve. So remember when your piled in books or can’t get any sleep because your running endless rounds. There is nothing out there that would be as happy working as hard for! There is nothing greater than knowing you’ve made a difference in someone’s life for the better :)

Always remember: Where’s a Will, there’s a Way!

The road to medicine is by no means an easy path, but nor is anything in life. When you find what your passionate about, there is nothing you’ll work as hard to achieve. So remember when your piled in books or can’t get any sleep because your running endless rounds. There is nothing out there that would be as happy working as hard for! There is nothing greater than knowing you’ve made a difference in someone’s life for the better :) Always remember: Where’s a Will, there’s a Way!

  • 31st March
    2014
  • 31
That awesome moment when you finish writing your honors thesis!!!

But then you have your thesis defense…

And your just like….

but outside when you walk in for your defense your like …

And you begin your thesis like …

when your committee questions your results during your defense ….

when its finished, you walk out like …

 

when you realize its finally over …

and then your like!!! …

fin. 

  • 31st March
    2014
  • 31
I’ve gotten a lot of questions from people about when they should take the MCAT. If you are planning to Apply in May(registration opens), don’t take it any later than mid-April! This way you can get your MCAT score back before you submit your application in June. This is important because you don’t want to apply until you have/know your MCAT scores. If you don’t do as well as you expected then you can take it again or wait to apply next year. Additionally Medical schools will NOT look at your application until you give them an MCAT score, if you say you are gonna retake it, the will NOT look at your application until you send them the new score!!!!! So please plan out when to take you MCAT with enough time to retake it (hopefully you won’t have to) before application submission in June. I would recommend taking it in the summer and not doing anything else during this time if possible. Study for the MCAT while taking classes or working full time will not fair well for most people, unless you are one of those epically awesome people who does super well on standardized tests. Remember to start studying AT LEAST 3 months before your scheduled deadline! If you don’t feel ready for the MCAT, move your test date back, its cheaper to move it than to pay to take it all over again! 

I’ve gotten a lot of questions from people about when they should take the MCAT. If you are planning to Apply in May(registration opens), don’t take it any later than mid-April! This way you can get your MCAT score back before you submit your application in June. This is important because you don’t want to apply until you have/know your MCAT scores. If you don’t do as well as you expected then you can take it again or wait to apply next year. Additionally Medical schools will NOT look at your application until you give them an MCAT score, if you say you are gonna retake it, the will NOT look at your application until you send them the new score!!!!! So please plan out when to take you MCAT with enough time to retake it (hopefully you won’t have to) before application submission in June. I would recommend taking it in the summer and not doing anything else during this time if possible. Study for the MCAT while taking classes or working full time will not fair well for most people, unless you are one of those epically awesome people who does super well on standardized tests. Remember to start studying AT LEAST 3 months before your scheduled deadline! If you don’t feel ready for the MCAT, move your test date back, its cheaper to move it than to pay to take it all over again! 

  • 31st March
    2014
  • 31
MCAT MATH REVIEW!!! 
- I know it sound terrible for some one you but I really recommend taking Calculus for the MCAT, It really helps a lot!
Remember Ladies and Gents: NO Calculator on the MCAT so get use to doing simple math in your head and memorizing some rules and the required math stuff you need to know (look at my archive for previous post about required math to know!)
1. FREERICE.ORG - every problem you get right they donate 10 grains of rice to the World Food Programme to help end hunger! Also good for testing basic skills in chemistry and other categories for the MCAT
2. MCAT THINKING: Fast Math Skills & Techniques - MCAT focused Math review and tricks 
3. Video Math Review! Good review of trick with triangles for physics section
4. Most Comprehensive Math Review for MCAT!!! This is an epic PDF full of awesomeness, pretty much all the math you will need to know for the whole MCAT!!! 
5. Practice! 

MCAT MATH REVIEW!!! 

- I know it sound terrible for some one you but I really recommend taking Calculus for the MCAT, It really helps a lot!

Remember Ladies and Gents: NO Calculator on the MCAT so get use to doing simple math in your head and memorizing some rules and the required math stuff you need to know (look at my archive for previous post about required math to know!)

1. FREERICE.ORG - every problem you get right they donate 10 grains of rice to the World Food Programme to help end hunger! Also good for testing basic skills in chemistry and other categories for the MCAT

2. MCAT THINKING: Fast Math Skills & Techniques - MCAT focused Math review and tricks 

3. Video Math Review! Good review of trick with triangles for physics section

4. Most Comprehensive Math Review for MCAT!!! This is an epic PDF full of awesomeness, pretty much all the math you will need to know for the whole MCAT!!! 

5. Practice! 

  • 31st March
    2014
  • 31
  • 23rd March
    2014
  • 23
  • 21st March
    2014
  • 21
This book is an awesome review of Genetics! With lots of awesome fun pictures, if you didn’t get to take Genetics for the MCAT or if it is one of your week spots, I definitely recommend this fun and awesome book as a good review source! Plus its by one of my favorites, beatricebiologist 
Description:
A crash course in genetics!
Everyone knows that if you come from a family of brunettes, you’re likely to be born with brown hair. But did you know your hair color may also affect how often you get sunburned? Or how often you need to take vitamin supplements?
What’s in Your Genes? goes beyond Gregor Mendel and dominant/recessive genes to show you all the ins and outs of what determines your DNA. Each entry provides you with a sneak peek into your DNA sequence and teaches you exactly how your body is able to create that wonderful you-ness that no one else has. From your tastebuds to your eye color to your obsession with clinical-strength deodorants, this book not only guides you through the history and study of genetics, but also shows you how those four little letters in your DNA make you who you are.
Complete with imaginative illustrations, What’s in Your Genes? reveals all there is to know about heredity—like the science behind vibrant red hair, perfect teeth, and your ability to see in color.
You can get her book here or are Barnes & Noble! 

This book is an awesome review of Genetics! With lots of awesome fun pictures, if you didn’t get to take Genetics for the MCAT or if it is one of your week spots, I definitely recommend this fun and awesome book as a good review source! Plus its by one of my favorites, beatricebiologist 

Description:

A crash course in genetics!

Everyone knows that if you come from a family of brunettes, you’re likely to be born with brown hair. But did you know your hair color may also affect how often you get sunburned? Or how often you need to take vitamin supplements?

What’s in Your Genes? goes beyond Gregor Mendel and dominant/recessive genes to show you all the ins and outs of what determines your DNA. Each entry provides you with a sneak peek into your DNA sequence and teaches you exactly how your body is able to create that wonderful you-ness that no one else has. From your tastebuds to your eye color to your obsession with clinical-strength deodorants, this book not only guides you through the history and study of genetics, but also shows you how those four little letters in your DNA make you who you are.

Complete with imaginative illustrations, What’s in Your Genes? reveals all there is to know about heredity—like the science behind vibrant red hair, perfect teeth, and your ability to see in color.

You can get her book here or are Barnes & Noble! 

  • 21st March
    2014
  • 21
Coagulation, Clotting Mechanisms, Role of Liver in production of Clotting Factors
SUMMARY - Clotting is a + Positive Feedback Mechanism + Clotting, leads to MORE (not less) clotting. Platelets are sticky pieces of megakaryoctyes, they contain enzymes for clotting. Clotting factors are produced in the Liver (Fibrinogen), which then circulates in the blood plasma. When a wound occurs, the platelets pile up onto it (platelet plug) and release chemicals that activate the fibrinogen. The fibrinogen follows are series of reactions becoming —> fibrin (a mesh that seals the clot during coagulation). Retraction and repair occur as the clot contracts (the clot dissolves after the wounded blood vessel is repaired).
Platelets contain enzymes and chemicals needed involved in the clotting process.
Liver produces clotting factors (eg. fibrinogen), which circulates in blood plasma.
Coagulation = liquid blood → gel
- Clotting Mechanism - 


1. Platelet plug formation: wound + platelets → platelets clump at wound, release chemicals, activates clotting factors.




2. Coagulation: series of clotting factor/enzyme activation that ends in fibrinogen → fibrin. Fibrin being the fiber mesh that seals the clot.




3. Retraction and repair: clot contracts, gets compact, but after the wounded blood vessel repairs itself, the clot dissolves.


For a more comprehensive review click here! 
For a video on this, click me!
And to test your knowledge on the subject, clickity click! 
photo complements to: larstheyeti

Coagulation, Clotting Mechanisms, Role of Liver in production of Clotting Factors

SUMMARY - Clotting is a + Positive Feedback Mechanism + Clotting, leads to MORE (not less) clotting. Platelets are sticky pieces of megakaryoctyes, they contain enzymes for clotting. Clotting factors are produced in the Liver (Fibrinogen), which then circulates in the blood plasma. When a wound occurs, the platelets pile up onto it (platelet plug) and release chemicals that activate the fibrinogen. The fibrinogen follows are series of reactions becoming —> fibrin (a mesh that seals the clot during coagulation). Retraction and repair occur as the clot contracts (the clot dissolves after the wounded blood vessel is repaired).

  • Platelets contain enzymes and chemicals needed involved in the clotting process.
  • Liver produces clotting factors (eg. fibrinogen), which circulates in blood plasma.
  • Coagulation = liquid blood → gel

  • - Clotting Mechanism - 
  • 1. Platelet plug formation: wound + platelets → platelets clump at wound, release chemicals, activates clotting factors.
  • 2. Coagulation: series of clotting factor/enzyme activation that ends in fibrinogen → fibrin. Fibrin being the fiber mesh that seals the clot.
  • 3. Retraction and repair: clot contracts, gets compact, but after the wounded blood vessel repairs itself, the clot dissolves.


For a more comprehensive review click here! 

For a video on this, click me!

And to test your knowledge on the subject, clickity click

photo complements to: larstheyeti

  • 12th March
    2014
  • 12

Transcription of DNA into RNA, enzymatic reactions, RNA, RNA degradation

  • Transcription
    1. Initiation: promoter recognition, closed complex, open complex.
      • Promoter:
        • Prokaryotic: ←upstream, -35 region, Pribnow box, transcription start site (TSS, +1), downstream→
        • Eukaryotic: ←upstream, several upstream elements, TATA box, initiator element containing TSS (+1), downstream→
        • The high A-T composition in promoters facilitate unwinding of DNA.
        • Template strand = antisense strand = (-) strand = noncoding strand = the DNA strand that serves as the template for transcription.
        • Nontemplate strand = sense strand = (+) strand = coding strand = the DNA strand having the same sequence as the transcribed RNA.
      • Binding to promoter:
        • Prokaryotic:
          • holoenzyme = core enzyme (polymerase activity) + σ-subunit (promoter and strand specificity).
          • binding first forms the closed complex, and then DNA opens up, forms the open complex.
        • Eukaryotic:
          • A whole bunch of transcription factors (TFs) involved in promoter recognition, binding, and openning up DNA.
          • TBP = Tata binding protein. TAF = TBP associated factor.
          • Phosphorylation of Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) opens DNA up, forms the open complex.
        • Polymerase must transcribe using the correct template strand. The σ-factor (prokaryotes) and TFs (eukaryotes) tell the RNA polymerase to bind the coding strand, while using the template strand as the template.
    2. Elongation:
      • Polymerases:
        • Prokaryotes have just one.
        • Eukaryotes have three:
          • 1. RNA Pol I: makes rRNA (except the small 5S rRNA that resembles a tRNA in size).
          • 2. RNA Pol II: makes mRNA.
          • 3. RNA Pol III: makes tRNA (and 5S rRNA).
      • Incorporation of NTPs.
      • Prokaryotes lose σ-subunit. Eukaryotes lose TFs.
      • Topoisomerases relaxing supercoils ahead and behind the polymerase.
      • Transcription-coupled repair: RNA Pol II encounters DNA damage, backs up, TFIIH comes along, recruits repair enzymes. Defective TFIIH → faulty transcription-coupled repair → Xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome (skin sensitive to sunlight radiation in both diseases).
    3. Termination
      • Prokaryotic:
        • Intrinsic termination: GC hairpin (stalls polymerase) followed by poly U (slips off).
        • Rho-dependent termination: ρ protein catches up to polymerase when it stalls at the hairpin, and bumps it off.
      • Eukaryotic:
        • Termination consensus sequence reached (AAUAAA).
        • Polymerase released somewhere further downstream to the consensus sequence.
  • RNA
    • 1. RNA = ribonucleic acid, has 2’-OH.
    • 2. rRNA = ribosomal RNA
      • Most abundant (r for rampant).
      • Catalyzes peptide bond formation in the ribosome.
    • 3. mRNA = messenger RNA
      • Longest (m for massive).
      • Contains sequence of codons for translation.
      • RNA splicing
        • pre-mRNA need to be processed.
        • Introns = interfering sequences, cut out.
        • Exons = spliced together.
        • RNA splicing proceeds via a lariat intermediate, by the action of the spliceosome (snRNPs), introns released in lariat form.
        • Some RNA can self splice.
    • 4. tRNA = transfer RNA
      • Smallest (t for tiny).
      • Contains anticodon.
      • Shuttles the correct amino acid to the correct codon during translation.
    • 5. snRNPs (snurps) = RNA + protein, involved in RNA splicing.
  • RNA degradation
    • RNases degrade RNA.
    • Post-transcriptional modifications protect RNA from degradation (5’ cap and polyA tail)
    • 2’-O-methylation prevents that position from attacking the RNA backbone.
  • 12th March
    2014
  • 12
Do you know what the difference between MD and DO school is/are?

Asked by: thegirlwhoworeyellow

MD vs. DO

There are two types of degrees to become a physician in the U.S.an MD (allopathic) degree and a DO (osteopathic) degree. Most people are more familiar with MD physicians, especially in the west. This is most likely because they represent only 6 percent of more than 61,000 DO physicians in the U.S. There are 131 allopathic medical schools and 29 osteopathic medical schools, with most osteopathic schools in the east.

Similarities

DO and MD physicians are alike in that they both utilize scientifically-accepted methods of diagnosis and treatment, including the use of prescription drugs and surgery. Educational requirements are similar in that both degrees require four years of medical school and a residency program of three to seven years. In most instances, DO and MD physicians are examined by the same state licensing board, therefore licensure for both are based on the same requirements and the same or comparable examinations. Both types of physicians are licensed to practice all phases of medicine in every state in America, and both are found in every specialty of medicine. The premedical pathway is identical for both allopathic and osteopathic schools, requiring premedical coursework (which varies slightly from school to school), the MCAT, and a bachelor’s degree.

Differences

While there are many similarities between osteopathic and allopathic physicians, there are also some important differences. First of all, the osteopathic philosophy differs from the allopathic philosophy. The osteopathic philosophy focuses on a holistic approach to practicing medicine, meaning treating the patient as a wholenot just the symptoms or injuries. This holistic approach acknowledges that all the body systems are interconnected and that the musculoskeletal system is especially important in reflecting and affecting the condition of all the other systems. Osteopathic schools require up to 200 hours of manipulation training on top of the medical coursework, demonstrating the emphasis placed on the musculoskeletal system. This training teaches students manual therapy and manipulation techniques, adding another tool to traditional forms of diagnosis and treatment to effectively care for patients.

Around 65 percent of DO physicians practice in primary care whereas the majority of MD physicians specialize. Many DO physicians practice in rural settings as primary care physicians, while MD physicians tend to stay close to metropolitan areas where there are more specialty positions available. However, there are MD and DO physicians in different environments all over the country. Currently, more medical applicants apply to allopathic schools than osteopathic schools, resulting in higher admission criteria for allopathic medical schools (refer to the MD and DO statistics handouts for more information) and DO schools use a different application service. Additional information regarding AMCAS, AACOMAS, and TMDSAS can be found in our office handouts.

MD and DO students and residents take different licensure exams, but both are important in determining factors for acceptance to residency programs. MD students take the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE), while DO students take the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX). DO medical students can apply to MD residency programs and are most competitive for those in primary care. While there are DO physicians in all sorts of MD residencies, it may be more difficult to get into a top MD residency program in a very competitive residency specialty as a DO. Some MD residencies will accept COMLEX board scores, while others require DO students to take the USMLE on top of taking the COMLEX. Many MD residencies don’t’ regard the manipulation training as relevant to their specialty.

Refer to the MSAR and www.aamc.org/students/start.htm for more information regarding allopathic medicine or the Osteopathic Medical College Information Book and www.aacom.org for more information regarding osteopathic medicine. 

  • 12th March
    2014
  • 12
Your blog makes me so happy and excited for studying medicine. You make it clear that the journey is not an easy one, but that it is well worth the effort. Thanks for that (:

Asked by: caryandharbeson

Such great feedback, thank you! The human body is a miraculous thing, it never ceases to amaze me, plus I just love learning! 

  • 12th March
    2014
  • 12
Oh hello! I'm from Brazil and I just found out your blog and I really fell in love. I to am a doctor in making, currently I am preparing myself for an exam here so I can get into med school and your blog has been very helpful since some subjects are a like. I wish the best of luck for you and we will one day become badass doctors hehe.

Asked by: inspectordementes

Thanks!!! You too! I hope you ace your exam!! 

  • 12th March
    2014
  • 12
What happens if you take two 200mg ibuprofen without needing them?

Asked by: youngconsultingmoose

It will still act as an anti-inflammatory and NSAID so it will probably dehydrate you a little but nothing bad will happen! 

  • 12th March
    2014
  • 12
hey, are you doing your undergrad or are you already in med school? :)

Asked by: amodelsdeath

Just finishing up my undergrad, I am a triple major so it took me an Extra year.